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英語音標讀法

所屬教程:口語技巧

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一、 連讀
連讀有四種類型:
1 Consonant / Vowel
2 Consonant / Consonant
3 Vowel / Vowel
4 T, D, S, or Z + Y
1、 以輔音結尾的單詞+元音開頭的單詞:要連讀
如: Your eyes 1a(one a) a bowl of rice. My name is
LA (Los Angeles) [e lei] 
902-5050 [nai nou tu: fai vou fai vou]

注意: 以輔音結尾 指的是音標中的最后一個音是輔音,而不是單詞的結尾,這如同u[ju:.]niversity前面的定冠詞必須用a 一樣。
另:以輔音結尾的單詞 + h開頭的單詞h不發音,人稱代詞:he、him、her、his與前面的輔音連讀。
Did he? Does he? Was he? Has he? Is he? Will he? Would he? Can he?

Wouldn't you?(wooden chew?) 
Shouldn't I?(shudn nai) 
Won't he? (won knee?) 
Didn't he?(didn knee?)

Hasn't he?(haz a knee?) 
Wouldn't he?(wooden knee?) 
Isn't he?(is a knee?) 
Isn't it? (is a nit?)

Doesn't it?(duza nit?) 
Aren't I?(are nai?)

Won't you?(won chew?) 
Don't you?(don chew?) 
Can't you?(can chew?) 
Could you?(ku d? u:?) 
Would you?(wu d3ju?)
Tell him to ask her….
Leave him For him
Give her a book. Giv-er a book.
Tell him to ask her. Tell-im to ask-er.
What will he do? What will-i do?
Where will he go? Where will-i go?
When will he come? When will-i come?
who will he meet? who will-i meet?
How will he know? How will-i know?
Has he gone? Has-i gone?
Had he done it before? Had-i done it before?
Must he go? Must-i go?
Can he do it? Can-i do it?
Should he leave? Should-i leave?
2、輔音+輔音的連讀
如果前面的單詞結尾的清輔音,后面單詞開頭是與之相對應的濁輔音,或者相反,只發后面的輔音
t-d t?-d? s-z ? -? p-b f-v k-g

sit down I don’t know(發音再次的老師都不會發出 [t] 音)
I just didn't get the chance.
Big cake Dad told me Huge change Good night
3、元音+元音
當前面的單詞以元音結尾,后面的單詞以元音開頭,兩個元音連讀,連讀的方法是在中間加w或者加j.以ou結尾的元音后面一般加w。而以長元音i:結尾的后面加j
Go (w)away who (w)is so (w)honest do (w)I? she (j)is
但發這兩個音的時候不要太強太故作。不然的話還不如不發。
4T, D, S, or Z + Y的連讀:
當一個單詞是以t d s z 結尾,后面的單詞是以y(j)開頭的話要連讀:
4-1 t+y 連讀成/t?/
What’s your name?
Can’t you do it?
I’ll let you know.
4-2 d+y連讀成/ d? u:/
Did you see it
How did you like it?
Could you tell?
4-3 s+y連讀?
Yes,you are
Bless you
Guess your age
4-4 z+y連讀成?
How’s your family?
Who’s your friend?
When’s your birthday?
呵呵!我第一次知道這一連讀規則時,興奮不已,很容易的聽懂了許多以前覺得很難以理解的句子,并且按照這種連讀方式發音省力、輕松了許多。

二、 失音
由于失去爆破是失音的一種現象,摩擦音也會被失去,所以統稱為失音。
注意: 爆破音并不是完全失去,仍然形成阻礙,把氣流堵在里面,但不爆破,直接發出相鄰的輔音。
Disappearing /T/
關于/t/失音問題:The sound /t/ tends to be unstable in many words and phrases. Sometimes it's there. Sometimes it isn't. There is a process called elision which deletes /t/ when it is preceded by a voiceless consonant and followed by any consonant except /h/. Here are some examples: Christmas last week most people act sensibly software international
 
Disappearing /d/
we saw that /t/ can disappear in certain circumstances. The same is true of /d/, but the circumstances are slightly different. If /d/ is preceded by a voiced consonant /b d g v D z Z dZ m n N l/ and it is followed by a consonant other than /h/, then it can be deleted (elided). Here are some examples: handbag old man used to
Taken together, the disappearance of /t/ and /d/ is called alveolar plosive elision.
 
三、 濁化
1、[S] 后面的清輔音要濁化
[k] 濁化成 [g] sky Discussion: 
[t] 濁化成[d] Stand 
[p]濁化成 [b] speak Expression
還有[tr]—[dr] strike
2、美音中t 在單詞的中間被濁化成[d]
如:writer, 聽起來和 rider 的發音幾乎沒有區別
letter—ladder out of
2-1在單詞的前面或后面就不濁化比如:Ted took ten tomatoes. first , coast, hot, late,fat, goat, hit, put, not, hurt,等。
2-2在過去式中ed的發音:在清輔音后面發t: laughed [la:ft], picked [pIkt], hoped [houpt], raced [reist], watched [wa: t?t], washed [wa: ?t]
在濁輔音后面發d : halved [hævd], rigged [rigd], nabbed [næbd], raised [reizd], smoothed [smu: ðd]
Exceptions: wicked [wikd], naked [nakd], crooked [kr¨1d], etc
T或d后面發/id/ started founded
2-3 t和n連在一起的時候,由于口位差不多,通常t就不發音了。

1. interview -innerview
2.Internet- innernet
3.twenty –twenny
4.winter –winner或winder
5.enter-enner或ender 
美國人和加拿大人發音為了省事,習慣清音濁化,尤其是[t]在單詞的中間一定會濁化成[d],但英國人發音不會這樣,這也是英音和美音的一大區別。了解這一濁化原則,會給聽力帶來一些幫助

四、 弱讀
一般來說:
實詞重讀,如動詞、名詞、副詞等;
虛詞弱讀,如介詞、代詞等
弱讀的規則一般是:元音音節弱化成 [?] 或 [?]
比如說如下幾個單詞:for/to/some/does/of
查字典會發現這些詞都至少有兩種讀音,如for: 重讀時[f?:] , 弱讀時 [f?] to有三種讀法[tu:][t?][t] some也有三種讀法[s?m][s?m][sm].does也有兩種讀法[d?z][d?z] of居然有四種讀法[?v][?v][v][f],沒想到啊!真是沒想到啊!
舉幾個例子:
1、To的弱讀:to的前面是輔音弱讀成t或t ? today/t’dei/ tonight/t’nait/ 
we have to/hæft? / go.
To的前面如果是元音,那就弱讀成d或d? I go to/goud? /work
at a quarter to two We plan to do it.
2、for的弱讀:在句中讀/f?r/句末讀/f ?:r/
This is for/f?r/ you. It's for/f?r/ my friend.
What is this for/f ?:r/? Who did you get it for/f ?:r/?
3、and弱讀成/n/ 
bread and butter
4、or弱讀成/?r/ Soup or/su:p?r/ salad? left or right
5、are弱讀成/?r/ What are you doing? How are you?
6、your弱讀成/j?r/ How's your family? Is this your car?
還有很多,希望多聽,細心體會。

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